Putting you completely in the picture about the science behind nucleotides
What are nucleotides?
Nucleotides are often referred to as “the building blocks of life” because they are the most basic structural components of our DNA.
Let’s keep it simple!
- Genetic material is found in the nucleus of every cell and is the blueprint of all life forms.
- Nucleotides are the structural components that are the basis of all life and therefore are also called the building blocks of life.
- In the DNA double helix structure, nucleotides are arranged in pairs bonded together to form the spiral backbone.
Where do Nucleotides come from?
Our body gets nucleotides from:
- Recycled nucleotides from worn out or dying cells – the salvage pathway.
- Newly produced nucleotides within the cell, synthesised from amino acids or glucose.
- The food we eat – our diet.
- A nutritional supplement.
All these sources have limitations:
- The recycling of nucleotides from dying cells is only 60% effective and time and energy consuming.
- Additionally, some of the most important systems cannot produce their own nucleotides such as some brain cells, cells coming from the bone marrow, like immune cells and red blood cells, and some cells of the skin and gut flora. Other cells, like cells of the intestinal wall (villi), can produce nucleotides but not enough to cover their entire need.
- The availability of nucleotides from food is low (bio-availability). Additionally, nucleotides are found in higher concentrations only in meat and mostly in organ meat (from organs such as liver, kidney, intestines, and lungs) that we no longer consume. Fruits and vegetables are very low in nucleotides. This results in the need to supplement nucleotides.
- Our intake of naturally occurring nucleotides is generally low. The typical modern, fast paced lives we live, constant high levels of stress and restricted dietary intake have resulted in nucleotide supplementation becoming a lifestyle induced essentiality.
Nucleotide Restrictions in our Modern Day
Dietary simplification is a term used to describe the reduction in nucleotide content of the modern diet. A large portion of the population no longer consume offal-type meats that are the richest source of dietary nucleotides. Fruits and vegetables do contain nucleotides but significantly less than that of organ meats. It is also important to remember that a varied diet will ensure that the full spectrum of all 5 nucleotides is ingested. So, even though we think our diet is varied – we may not have the full spectrum of nucleotides available to supply our bodies’ needs.
We are overfed but undernourished!
Why are nucleotides so important?
Nucleotides are not only the “building blocks of life”, but they are also involved in almost all activities of each cell. Nucleotides are essential for cell regeneration, the transfer of energy, the production of protein and the mediation of hormone signals.
Most cells in the body can utilise nucleotides from the synthesis and salvage pathway but other cells need a continuous supply of nucleotides from the diet. There are cells that rely on the dietary sources of nucleotides, and they are:
- Cells forming the lining of the digestive tract (intestinal mucosa cells);
- The good bacteria in the intestinal tract – Bifidobacteria;
- White blood cells of the immune system (specifically lymphocytes);
- Red blood cells (specifically erythrocytes); and
- Dermal/Epidermal cells.
These 5 cell types have a rapid turnover in the body as they are the most important cells that ensure our health and the optimal biological processes of our digestive and immune systems.
Our bodies can cope with changes and challenges (like disease and stress) and react optimally only when nucleotides are easily available and in sufficient quantities. Only a continuous balanced supply of nucleotides can ensure that these tissues and cells can function optimally. This can be guaranteed by an adequate supplementation of the correct portion of nucleotides.
Nucleotides and its relevance in DrK cellREVERSE: Cell Regeneration
Our bodies are in a continued state of flux in which tissues have a varied cell turnover rate – some faster and others slower in which older cells are discarded and replaced by newer ones. As cells age, they become damaged through everyday wear and tear and therefore need to be renewed. The cells that are used more frequently have a higher replacement rate i.e. the cells that form the intestinal villi are replaced every 3-5 days, cells that line the stomach last only 5 days, skin cells regenerates approximately every 27 days and red blood cells last only 120 days.
To replace a cell – cell regeneration – an exact copy (replica) of the genetic information stored in the DNA needs to be made. It is essential to the well-being of our bodies that this replication is done without errors as these may result in a loss of immunity, disease, or even genetic mutations. To ensure accurate replication, each cell must have access to a pool of freely available, relevant nucleotide bases to build the copy from, as well as a supply of RNA and various enzymes to stimulate and provide the energy (ATP/GTP) for these reactions.
The double helix unzips at critical points to allow uncoiling and exposing of the DNA sequence that needs to be duplicated. The two complimentary halves are exposed so that the freely available nucleotides can be matched up in their relevant pairs. Because these nucleotides can only line up in complimentary fashion, it ensures that the two emerging strands of DNA are identical to the original template. Only now can the process of cell division begin to take place. It should be clear that without a balanced pool of nucleotides available and ready-for-use, cellular replication could be delayed or put on hold indefinitely until the required nucleotide is produced or made available for use in a specific position.
DrK cellREVERSE applications all contain a unique Nucleotide Complex that makes a pool of Nucleotides in the correct ratio available for dermal and epidermal cells to speed up the cell replication process but also ensuring that good quality new cells are formed.